Supercomputer shows ‘Chameleon Theory’ could change how we think about gravity When it comes to cosmology, the macro scale is important. As scientists search for the reasons behind the increasing rate at which the universe is expanding, they modify Einstein’s theory of gravity and delve into dark energy theories to explain this counter-intuitive phenomenon. Citation: Macro, not micro: modified theories of gravity (2007, February 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-02-macro-micro-theories-gravity.html These simple modifications are represented as f(R) theories, and they are used to explain what is seen on a cosmic scale. But there’s a problem. “Some modified theories of gravity have nice features for cosmology, on the big scale, but they don’t work so well on the small scale,” Gonzalo Olmo explains to PhysOrg.com. “I managed to solve these equations on the micro level, and I found that they are inconsistent.”Olmo, 28, is a post-doc at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. He says he solved these equations two years ago, but waited until interpreting them to have them published. His recent letter in Physical Review Letters, which puts forth the equations and their interpretations, is titled “Violation of the Equivalence Principle in Modified Theories of Gravity.” In the Letter, Olmo presents equations that suggest that when some modified theories of gravity are applied to the micro scale, new properties emerge that can effectively rule out some theories that explain accelerating universe expansion.“If we manage to show these theories are not consistent, which it looks like, then this approach in cosmology would be useless,” Olmo points out. He says that there are two main ways modified theories are studied: in the metric formalism or in the Palatini formalism. Olmo explains that his paper focuses on theories of gravity in the Palatini formalism. “[T]he connection is regarded as independent of the metric and, therefore, must be determined by solving its corresponding field equations,” the paper says.Olmo says that when he solved the equations on the micro scale, he noticed the emergence of new properties: “These new properties have never been seen in other modified theories of gravity, and these new properties are what make these theories so weird on the micro scale.”Even though Olmo says that these theories would not do to explain the expansion of the universe, since they are inconsistent on the micro scale, there are some uses for modified theories of gravity. He explains that the differences between how these modified theories work on the macro scale and on the micro scale could offer insight into the interaction between gravitation and quantum physics. “According to Einstein,” Olmo explains, “spacetime should be nearly flat in, for instance, your dining room or the interior of an atom.” He pauses before continuing: “However, in Palatini theories we find that it is curved even on a micro level, which has a strong effect on the properties of the quantum world. This can lead to better understanding by seeing how these modified theories of gravity interact with quantum theory.” “There are different possibilities to the reasons behind the acceleration of the universe,” continues Olmo. “Some theorists use dark energy to explain the expansion, and others modify the equations of gravity to say it is not dark energy. However, there could be a mix.” He says that it is very difficult to distinguish the effects of dark energy from those of modified equations, and the difference could hold the key to discovering what’s behind the increasing rate of expansion of our universe. And he thinks applying modified theories of gravity to the micro scale as well as to the macro scale could help determine the different effects. “If this idea can get going,” he enthuses, “there could be a very interesting future.” By Miranda Marquit, Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Light may increase magnetic memory speeds 1000 times, decrease electricity consumption Citation: Manipulating Magnetism for Future Data-Storage Devices (2007, April 30) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2007-04-magnetism-future-data-storage-devices.html In an important step toward future data-storage technologies based on magnetism, a research group has determined how to control the magnetization of a “magnetic vortex,” a curling nanometer-sized magnetic structure present within tiny, millionth-of-a-meter-sized magnetic disks. Understanding the behavior of this type of structure is one of the main requirements of magnetic data-storage development. A graphical representation of the magnetization of a magnetic disk with a rotating vortex. a-f, Over a time period of about 20 nanoseconds, the magnetization of the core (represented by the spike in the center of the disk) moves circularly around the disk´s center. Simultaneously, the magnetization switches from upward to downward and begins to switch back to upward. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. The group, led by scientists at Kyoto University in Japan, found a way to manipulate the magnetization of the vortex’s core without applying an external magnetic field to the disk. Instead, they applied a current.“We have taken advantage of the way the vortex responds to an applied current,” said corresponding Kyoto University scientist Teruo Ono to PhysOrg.com. “A current of the right strength resonates with the vortex, causing it to rotate at a high speed – several hundred meters per second. This motion produces a strong dynamic magnetic field that opposes the vortex’s own magnetization, and reverses it.”Although the applied current is electrical in nature, being based on electrons, it isn’t a stream of moving electrons. It is a “spin current,” a stream of moving spins. Spin is an intrinsic property of electrons that essentially imparts them with a tiny magnetic field, or magnetic “moment,” pointing either up or down. If several electrons are placed in a row, a spin can propagate down the line; many propagating spins produces a spin current.Across the globe, teams of researchers are working to build viable spin-based electronic devices – spintronics – using spin currents. This group’s work opens the possibility that simple magnetic disks can serve as the building blocks for spintronic devices like memory cells, where each bit of information would be stored as the direction of the vortex-core’s field. Vortex-core switching could be an efficient way of writing data to a memory device.The physics underlying this result is the tension created between the spin direction of the conduction electrons and the direction of the individual magnetic moments that make up the overall magnetic field of the vortex core. When they are positioned relative to each other at a specific angle, the spin current applies a torque to each moment, forcing the whole core to rotate.“This spin-transfer effect liberates us from having to apply a large external magnetic field in order to control magnetic devices, which means we can avoid the expense and effort required to maintain such large fields,” Ono added.This research is described in the March 18, 2007, online edition of Nature Materials.Citation: Keisuke Yamada, Shinya Kasai, Yoshinobu Nakatani, Kensuke Kobayashi, Hiroshi Kohno, André Thiaville, and Teruo Ono, Nature Materials advance online publication, 18 March 2007 (DOI 10.1038/nmat1867)Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Explore further
Spatial problems are those that exist in the three dimensional physical world, rather than as themes or ideas. Figuring out how to fit randomly shaped objects into a single whole, for example, as is needed in building a stone fence perhaps, shows an ability to imagine how things will fit together as the project moves along, rather than using trial and error, demonstrates spatial reasoning. Spatial abilities are often believed to be a requisite for doing well in math and other sciences, particularly engineering and physics. Thus the debate about inherent gender abilities takes on more meaning in the academic world. In their study, Hoffman and his team went to India where they found two very similar cultures living very nearly side by side – with one major difference. One was patrilineal (mostly run by males), the other matrilineal (mostly run by females). To test their theory that culture has more to do with spatial ability than gender, they paid 1,279 adult volunteers of both genders from both groups to assemble a wooden puzzle as quickly as they could; a task they believe that requires spatial abilities. They found that men from the patrilineal group performed the task on average 36% faster than women from the same group. With the matrilineal group however, no discernable time difference between the genders was found, indicating, according to the group, that differences in culture lead to differences in ability to solve a spatial problem rather than gender.Others however are still not convinced; some suggest that assembling a wooden puzzle doesn’t truly demonstrate spatial abilities at all since it’s actually just a two dimensional puzzle. Others add that the differences found in the study could be due to other cultural differences such as the desire to please.In either case, the research does show that differences in problem solving abilities can occur due to cultural differences and that more research is needed before making any definitive conclusions one way or the other. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Throughout much of human history, it has been assumed by both men and women that men are somehow better able to solve so-described spatial problems than are women. This apparent discrepancy has been used to explain the differences in the numbers of men versus women receiving doctoral degrees in the math and sciences, at least in the United States. Now however, new research by Moshe Hoffman, a researcher from the University of California and colleagues suggests that conventional thinking might be wrong. He and his team have published a paper on the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that suggests that spatial ability comes more as a result of the environment in which a person is raised, rather than from gender. Explore further More information: Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities, PNAS, Published online before print August 29, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1015182108AbstractWomen remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. © 2011 PhysOrg.com Gender gap in spatial ability can be reduced through training Citation: New study disputes notion that men are better at spatial thinking than women (2011, August 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-disputes-notion-men-spatial-women.html
One of the objects was found to be near W Aquilae in the night sky—the other adjacent to Alpha Centauri . Both groups report being skeptical at first regarding a faint glow, but monitored what they had seen nonetheless—to their surprise they found that the objects appeared to move relative to the stars behind them, which suggested they might be relatively close and that they might be orbiting the sun. Neither group was able to gain much evidence regarding the properties of the objects they had spied, because both of them were only able to make two observations, but both teams suggest there was enough data to allow for ruling out the object being an ordinary star.The Swedish team nick-named the object they observed Gna, after a Nordic God known for its swiftness, and have told the press they had no intention of suggesting they had found the mythical Planet X which supposedly lies somewhere beyond Pluto. Instead they suggest it might be a large asteroid. The team from Mexico went a little further suggesting that the object they observed might possibly turn out to be a brown dwarf.There is also the possibility, as some astronomers who have read the two papers suggest, that either or both of the objects are merely illusions, random blips or noise that for a moment or two appeared to take the shape of a very far away object. Some have even tweeted their opinions, insinuating that jumping on the Planet X bandwagon would be sheer folly.Despite the skepticism, it is likely that other research groups will be training their instruments on the piece of sky where the objects were possibly seen, to prove or disprove their existence and to put a stop to the conjecture. Both of the teams involved have voiced their support of such efforts, noting that they would like an explanation for what they observed. ALMA prototype-antennas at the ALMA test facility. Credit: ESO Explore further (Phys.org)—Two separate teams of researchers (one from Mexico, the other Sweden), have incited skepticism among the astronomy community by posting papers on the preprint server arXiv each describing a different large object they observed in the outer edges of the solar system. Both teams made their observations after reviewing data from ALMA—a cluster of radio dishes in the Chilean mountains. Astronomers spot most distant object in solar system More information: A new submm source within a few arcseconds of α Centauri: ALMA discovers the most distant object of the solar system, arXiv:1512.02652 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1512.02652The serendipitous discovery of a possible new solar system object with ALMA, arXiv:1512.02650 [astro-ph.SR] arxiv.org/abs/1512.02650 © 2015 Phys.org Journal information: arXiv Citation: Report of discovery of large object in far outer edges of solar system incites skeptical reactions (2015, December 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-12-discovery-large-outer-edges-solar.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Applied Physics Letters Citation: Scientists solve 400-year-old mystery of Prince Rupert’s drops (2017, May 9) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-05-scientists-year-old-mystery-prince-rupert.html More information: H. Aben et al. “On the extraordinary strength of Prince Rupert’s drops.” Applied Physics Letters. DOI: 10.1063/1.4971339 To do this, Chandrasekar and Chaudhri began collaborating with Hillar Aben, a professor at Tallinn University of Technology in Estonia. Aben specializes in determining residual stresses in transparent three-dimensional objects, such as Prince Rupert’s drops.In the new study published in Applied Physics Letters, Aben, Chandrasekar, Chaudhri, and their coauthors have investigated the stress distribution in Prince Rupert’s drops using a transmission polariscope, which is a type of microscope that measures the birefringence in an axi-symmetrical transparent object, such as a Prince Rupert’s drop. In their experiments, the researchers suspended a Prince Rupert’s drop in a clear liquid, and then illuminated the drop with a red LED. Using the polariscope, the researchers measured the optical retardation of the light as it traveled through the glass drop, and then used the data to construct the stress distribution throughout the entire drop. Why water splashes—new theory reveals secrets Fringes throughout a Prince Rupert’s drop indicate residual stresses. Credit: Aben et al. ©2017 American Institute of Physics As the researchers explain, these values give the droplet heads a very high fracture strength. In order to break a droplet, it’s necessary to create a crack that enters the interior tension zone in the drop. Since cracks on the surface tend to grow parallel to the surface, they cannot enter the tension zone. Instead, the easiest way to break a drop is to disturb the tail, since a disturbance in this location allows cracks to enter the tension zone. Overall, the researchers believe that the results finally explain the great strength of Prince Rupert’s drops.”The work has fully explained why the head of a drop is so strong,” Chaudhri told Phys.org. “I believe we have now solved most of the main aspects of this area. However, new questions may emerge unexpectedly.” (Phys.org)—Researchers have finally answered a question that has stumped scientists since the early 1600s: Why are the heads of tadpole-shaped pieces of glass called “Prince Rupert’s drops” so strong? The results showed that the heads of the drops have a much higher surface compressive stress than previously thought—up to 700 megapascals, which is nearly 7,000 times atmospheric pressure. This surface compressive layer is also thin, about 10% of the diameter of the head of a drop. In the 17th century, Prince Rupert from Germany brought some of these glass drops to England’s King Charles II, who was intrigued by their unusual properties. While the head of the drop is so strong that it can withstand the impact of a hammer, the tail is so fragile that bending it with your fingers will not only break the tail, but cause the entire droplet to instantly disintegrate into a fine powder. Prince Rupert’s drops are easily made by dropping red hot blobs of molten glass into water. Although researchers have tried to understand what causes the unusual properties of these drops for many years, it was not until recently that modern technology has allowed researchers to thoroughly investigate them.In 1994, S. Chandrasekar at Purdue University and M. M. Chaudhri at the University of Cambridge used high-speed framing photography to observe the drop-shattering process. From their experiments, they concluded that the surface of each drop experiences highly compressive stresses, while the interior experiences high tension forces. So the drop is in a state of unstable equilibrium, which can be easily disturbed by breaking the tail. One open question, however, is how the stresses are distributed throughout a Prince Rupert’s drop. Understanding the stress distribution would help to more fully explain why the heads of these drops are so strong. Explore further Prince Rupert’s drop. © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Credit: CC0 Public Domain (Phys.org)—A team of researchers from several institutions in the U.S. has found that algae growing on packed snow causes the snow to melt faster. In their paper published in the journal Nature Geoscience, the team describes testing the impact of algae growing on snow and measuring its impact on an Alaskan ice field. © 2017 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Cosmopolitan snow algae accelerate melting of Arctic glaciers As the planet continues to warm, scientists around the globe seek to learn about resulting changes. In this new effort, the researchers looked at the impact of algae growing on icefields in Alaska.Chlamydomonas nivalis is a type of fresh water algae that is hardy enough to survive while living on the snowflakes that make up ice fields in polar regions. Because of its pinkish hue, it causes what is commonly known as “watermelon snow.” Logic suggests that colored snow reflects less heat than white snow and that was what prompted the researchers to look into the impact that the algae is having on the ice fields.The study consisted of adding water to small designated areas and fertilizer to others on the Harding Icefield. The team also completely removed algae from some other areas to serve as a control. Doing so, the team reports, caused algae growth 1.5 times that of white snow in the watered areas and quadruple that in areas where fertilizer was added. The team then measured ice melt over a period of 100 days for all of the test areas.The researchers found that the places where algae were growing melted faster than did those with no algae, and the more algae was present, the faster the ice melted. By comparing their results with satellite imaging data, they were able to calculate the increase in melting across the entire ice field due to the presence of the algae—they found it to be 17 percent.But that was not the end of the story. The team also found that because the algae caused more melting, it meant there was more water for it to use, which increased its growth, causing even more melting. The presence of the algae created a feedback which, the team claims, is causing glacial ice to melt faster than it would otherwise. The researchers suggest the effect is likely occurring on glaciers in other places as well, including those in mountainous regions in non-polar areas. Explore further Journal information: Nature Geoscience Citation: Algae growing on snow found to cause ice field to melt faster in Alaska (2017, September 19) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2017-09-algae-ice-field-faster-alaska.html More information: Gerard Q. Ganey et al. The role of microbes in snowmelt and radiative forcing on an Alaskan icefield, Nature Geoscience (2017). DOI: 10.1038/ngeo3027AbstractA lack of liquid water limits life on glaciers worldwide but specialized microbes still colonize these environments. These microbes reduce surface albedo, which, in turn, could lead to warming and enhanced glacier melt. Here we present results from a replicated, controlled field experiment to quantify the impact of microbes on snowmelt in red-snow communities. Addition of nitrogen–phosphorous–potassium fertilizer increased alga cell counts nearly fourfold, to levels similar to nitrogen–phosphorus-enriched lakes; water alone increased counts by half. The manipulated alga abundance explained a third of the observed variability in snowmelt. Using a normalized-difference spectral index we estimated alga abundance from satellite imagery and calculated microbial contribution to snowmelt on an icefield of 1,900 km2. The red-snow area extended over about 700 km2, and in this area we determined that microbial communities were responsible for 17% of the total snowmelt there. Our results support hypotheses that snow-dwelling microbes increase glacier melt directly in a bio-geophysical feedback by lowering albedo and indirectly by exposing low-albedo glacier ice. Radiative forcing due to perennial populations of microbes may match that of non-living particulates at high latitudes. Their contribution to climate warming is likely to grow with increased melt and nutrient input.
Just a day before I visited Spice Route, Kareena Kapoor had named it among her favourite restaurants in the Capital in her book The Style Diary of a Bollywood Diva. All the more reason why I was curious to check out this restaurant at The Imperial. While The Imperial is all about Victorian elegance, Spice Route is far removed from it. Instead, its polished wood, brass lamps and hand-painted murals remind you of an old temple somewhere in southeast Asia. The restaurant is designed to reflect the journey of spices from the southern coast of India to the Far East. The first impression is breathtakingly beautiful. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The restaurant recently unveiled its winter menu which is a mix of Sri Lankan, Malaysian, Vietnamese and Thai food. The good thing is, even if you are not a spice lover like me, you can always have your dish custom-made. The menu doesn’t have too many options for that winter staple — soup. They have some Meen Rassam (mixed seafood rassam tempered with Kerala spices) and Tom Yum Thalay (spicy hot and sour mixed seafood soup). Prawns, lobsters, squid and fish dominate the menu (I am certain being a vegetarian, Kareena must have skipped the winter menu). Vegetarians please try out the regular menu because there is nothing for you here. If you are a seafood lover, you will relish it. The dishes are well cooked, service is prompt and the ambience makes for a nice meal. I sampled some Isso Miris Temperadu which were fresh pranws, fried SRi Lankan style with paprika powder, tomato and Worcestershire sauce, some Meen Biryani (Kerala style rice cooked with squids and prawns) which was quite good with the right amount of spices. Paired perfectly with the watermelon juice I ordered. For deserts, there was some yummy mango ice cream (not on the menu). The perfect end!DETAILAt: The Spice Route, The Imperial, Janpath On Till: 31 January Timings: 12.30pm to 2.45 pm (lunch) & 7pm to 11.45 pm (dinner) Meal for Two: Rs 8,000 + taxes Phone: 23341234
This one is for the Delhi art lovers. Gallery Artspeak has brought together a group show of paintings, etchings, digital prints, mix media, drawings, sculptures and videos by artistes like Ajay Kanhere, Akshay Rathore, Anpu Varkey, Baiju Parthan, Gigi Scaria, Hemant, Hemant Rao, Hemi Bawa, Kavita Singh Kale, Mousmi Biswas, Pratul Dash, Puja Kshatriya, Rajmahamad Pathan, Ritu Kapoor Kamath, Santosh Kale, Sandeep Biswas, Shivani Aggarwal, Shruti Gupta Chandra, Vidya Kamath and Yogesh Rawal. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’This current exhibition is a mini-version of the generic art fair aesthetics presenting a wide range of works of art created by both young and established artists who interestingly position themselves alternatively within the zones of alternative and mainstream practices. In contemporary times, due to the unpredictable movement of capital across borders, establishments, societies and individuals, as artists being partly the products of their milieu, it is very easy for them to move between the economic implications of aesthetics. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixToday within the given economic and socio-cultural and political realities, the mainstream artists tend to move towards alternative mediums and practices while the alternative ones move towards the mainstream aesthetics, if given a chance.While the alternative practices of the mainstreamers get a mainstream value easier, the mainstream practice of the alternative practitioners take more time to gain acceptance in the field of economic transactions. Tricky though it seems, the vigorous cross boundary aesthetic negotiations make this possible and in the long run both these practitioners gain visibility, appreciation and value by becoming a part and parcel of the established structure.Through various acts of co-optation alternative becomes mainstream and vice versa. In this sense, the current exhibition is a mini-version of the generic art fair aesthetics, in which varied expressions of conventionality and radicalism go hand in hand allowing the viewers to get inter-aesthetical and intra-aesthetical experiences.WHEN: On till 8 MarchWHERE: Artspeaks India Gallery, 5 Kehar Singh Estate, Lane No. 2, Western Marg, Said-ul-ajaib Near Garden of Five Senses
Kolkata: ISKCON has set up an immersive 360 degree full dome at Mayapur to preach the message of harmony and world peace.The hi-tech theatre was officially launched for public viewing on the auspicious occasion of Narsingha Chaturdashi on April 29.It may be recalled that during her visit to Mayapur in February, Chief Minister had assured the ISKCON authorities every cooperation in their attempt to declare Mayapur as a World Heritage Centre. Full dome refers to immersive dome based video projection environment where the viewer is surrounded by the video projection in a hemispherical angle view. The dome horizontal or tilted is filled with real time or pre-rendered computer animations, live captured images or composite environments. Even though astronomy is the most common topic, there are no content limitations and is used for hyper realistic presentations, explained Sridama Das, a native of New Zeland and the main mind behind setting up of the theatre. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flights”Top grade technology is used which is at par with the best theatres in the world to give a spiritually riveting audio-visual experience”, he added. The theatre has a capacity of 108 seats and is centrally air-conditioned. Currently two highly immersive films are running in Bengali and English in alternate shows. First film is named, The Churning, a unique look at the Samudra Manthan pastime (Lila) of Lord Vishnu using classic paintings from the books of His Divine Grace Swami Prabhupad, founder Acharya of ISKCON with additional immersive 3D graphics inside a 360 degree setting. Second film is 9 steps to eternity, which explores Nabadwip and the 9 forms of devotional service to please Lord Krishna.Every year Mayapur, is being visited by more than 6 million devotees, pilgrims and tourists from different parts of the world.Full Dome films on esoteric subjects like Bhagavad Gita, Srimad Bhagvatam, Chaitanya Charitamrita and other Vedic literature in an enlivening manner.
If you are not happy with what you are doing for a living, do not be quick to give up as researchers say passion too can be cultivated and you may well enjoy the very job you earlier disliked.The findings offer assurance to those who have not — or have yet — to find what they are passionate about: If you can not discover your passion, you can learn to develop it.“We can choose to change our beliefs or strategies to cultivate passion gradually or seek compatibility from the outset, and be just as effective in the long run at achieving this coveted experience,” said the study’s lead author Patricia Chen, doctoral psychology student at University of Michigan in the US. The dominant mentality is the belief that passion is attained through finding a fit with the right line of work, or “following one’s passion”. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’An alternative mindset is that passion can be cultivated over time as one gains competence in a line of work. Researchers examined people’s expectations, choices and outcomes associated with each of these two mindsets — termed as the “fit theory” and “develop theory”.They found that both mentalities are similarly effective at achieving vocational wellbeing. People with the fit theory tend to select vocations that they enjoy from the outset —an indication of compatibility that is important to them. In contrast, people with the develop theory focus on cultivating passion and fit over time. “Thus, they are more likely to prioritise vocational characteristics other than immediate enjoyment, such as pay,” Chen said. The findings suggest contrary to popular wisdom, a
Kolkata: Eminent Kolkata chronicler and writer P T Nair on Tuesday expressed worry over the flooding of his house in Ernakulam in Kerala where he has stored archival records of the city’srich past.The ground floor of his house at Chandamangalam in Ernakulam district of Kerala, where he had stored his rich collection of old newspaper clippings and other papers in the city, is still submerged and cannot be reached as all the approach roads are still flooded. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeHis family members had, however, escaped in the nick of time.”As the flood waters approached my son Manoj, daughter-in-law Seema and my grandchildren quickly got into their vehicle and rushed to their sister Maya’s residence in Ernakulam town, which is around 15 km from the Chandamangalam house on August 16,” Nair said.Nair stays in the city with his wife Sitha. Stating that he is now in regular contact with his family over phone, the 85-year-old said: “I had never heard about any calamity of this magnitude in Kerala in my life time.Nair, who has archived Kolkata’s history for the last 63 years, is worried about the fate of the old newspaper clippings stored in the ground floor of his house.”I do not know what happened to the records which I had collected so painstakingly over the decades and preserved them. I would like to retrieve whatever remains once the water level recedes and visit our house,” said the author of over 50 books on Kolkata.
Kolkata: West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee on Friday remembered the martyrs of the 1959 Khadya Andolan and said her government has ensured food security for 90 per cent of the state’s population. “Remembering the martyrs of 1959 Khadya Andolan. In Bangla, we provide food security to 90% (8.59 crore) of the State’s people, through the Khadya Sathi scheme,” Banerjee wrote on Twitter. West Bengal witnessed a mass movement in the late 1958 by the then undivided CPI and other left groups protesting against the food crisis. The movement for food (Khadya Andolon) reached its peak in August, 1959 after several people involved in the movement including farmers and women, were killed in police firing during a protest rally. Banerjee who came to power in the state in 2011, also said her government also provides special assistance to the people of Maoist-infested Jangalmahal comprising of Bengal’s western districts, north Bengal hills and coastal regions of state that is often hit by cyclone.
Kolkata: The Health department of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) will soon hold a meeting with Kolkata Police seeking the latter’s cooperation over conducting drives against vector-borne diseases in locked buildings.”Section 546 of the KMC Act empowers the commissioner to take up drives in buildings under lock and key for a long period of time by breaking open the lock , if the civic body feels that the building may have turned into a breeding ground for mosquitoes. However, in certain parts of the city, there have been lack of cooperation on the part of the police which has acted as a hindrance in such drives. We will soon hold a meeting with the top brass of the police to ensure proper support in this area,” a senior official of KMC’s health department said.Member Mayor-in-Council (Health) Atin Ghosh chaired a meeting on the present situation of dengue drives in the city and what measures need to be taken to clear impediments, if any for conducting drives smoothly. It is learnt that Ghosh had said in the meeting that he may take up the matter with Police Commissioner Rajeev Kumar if such non cooperation continues after some councillors pointed out their difficulties in holding drives at locked building premises. As per section 546, KMC after breaking the lock will conduct cleanliness drive in the building and will then put the same under a new lock and key and the key will handed over to the officer-in-charge of the police station under which the building falls. KMC has been holding such meetings at regular intervals at the borough level to ensure that dengue drive and awareness campaigns gain momentum.”We have also found out that a number of condemned buildings of the railways in the city are under lock and key and drives need to be conducted there immediately,” the senior official said.KMC will also hold meetings with representatives from apartments in the city urging them to keep their premises clean. “There are also problems with some business establishments who are doing business but have not put in place any drainage or conservancy measures in place,” he maintained.”It is true that the number of dengue cases has been much less in comparison to the previous year. However, there is no place for complacency,” the official added.
A solo show titled ‘Metaphors of the Moon’ will be presented by Studio Adda at the Lalit Kala Akademi from May 11- 17. The present series of the paintings, Metaphors of the Moon, chart the trajectories of the mind as it travels from absence to presence in a cyclic repetition. The mind is the metaphor for the Moon. It represents the cyclic process of thought, its creation, immersion and regeneration. The lessons of the Moon are about the fragility of reconciliation and the assurance of restoration. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfThe paintings are a visualization of the individualized collective mind that embraces the one and the infinite, with the same ease as it deals with universal pain, suffering and loss. The mind engages naturally with the task of the larger and impersonal, rather than the smaller and personal. Like the Moon, the mind too reduces itself to fit the mortal world. The mind binds itself to the temporal, despite the knowledge of its timelessness, and expanse. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveKota Neelima’s paintings for the past decade have been inspired by the questions of existence and creation andexplored the healthy tradition of doubt and scepticism in Indian philosophical thought. Her worksinterrogate the concepts of creation, causation and karma, as paths of reconciliation.Drawing from her study of the Upanishads, and her own understanding of contemporary India as an author about poverty and spirituality, Neelima’s works are part of public and private spaces in India and other countries, including the Museum of Sacred Art in Belgium.
Balurghat: The election season witnesses massive campaigning with all eyes on political debates raging in every nook and corner of the country. This is also the time when health and awareness camps take a backseat as organisations involved with such programmes find it difficult to organise drives because of reduced turnout due to poll activities.The ongoing election here in South Dinajpur has hit donation and availability of blood. Both blood banks in Balurghat and Gangarampur have been suffering as very few blood donation camps are being held by welfare organizations. According to an official source, no blood donation camp has been organised nearly for a month here. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata”The shortage of blood has led to unprecedented pressure on relatives of patients. The crisis deepened since the Election Commission of India issued a directive barring political leader and the representatives of political parties from organising any camp during the polls,” said a source of district health department adding that more than 80 per cent of their supply are being collected through voluntary collection. During summers, blood banks face crisis and the stock dips by 30 per cent but at present the problem compounded because of the polls. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateNGOs, social welfare organisations, local youth clubs or political parties are busy with campaigns and other poll-related activities. “The election fever has taken a toll on blood collection resulting to an acute shortage of supply in the two principal state-run blood banks of Balurghat and Gangarampur. About 1,200 unit of blood is required every month at the blood banks for operations and blood transfusion for Thalassemia patients,” said a source. In Balurghat, at present, about 40 units of blood are stored. Of the 40 units, 16 units are for A positive group, one unit for A negative, 20 units for B positive, one unit for B negative and one unit for O positive group. There is no blood for AB and O negative groups in the district hospital. In Gangarampur sub-divisional hospital, the stock of blood is almost nil. The relatives of patients are being asked to arrange for donors. However, most of them are returning in empty-handed. The condition of other blood banks in the town is no better. Chief medical officer of health (South Dinajpur) Dr Sukumar Dey said: “No major blood donation camp has being conducted during the last month because of the ongoing elections. We have appealed all the donors and social organisations to conduct blood donation camps to tide over the crisis.”
Men with higher physical strength, like well-built muscules, are more likely to favour inequality in society as well as have apathetic political attitudes towards redistribution of resources, according to a study. “The study shows a stronger correlation between physical strength and political attitudes…(it) supports that raw physical strength is indeed the decisive factor,” said Lasse Laustsen, Associate Professor from the Aarhus University in the UK. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfAccording to the researchers, the findings may help explain the paradox of why some men with limited financial resources still favour financial inequality although they would in fact benefit from a greater redistribution of resources. “Our analysis suggests that these men expects to be able to rise in the hierarchy on their own. And once they reach the top of the hierarchy, an unequal society will increase their chances of maintaining that position,” said Laustsen. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe study, published in the journal Political Psychology, takes a cue from the study of animals which explains that physical strength shapes the conflict behaviour of animals. If animals are larger and stronger than their rivals, they are prone to attempt to assert themselves in the struggle for status and resources. However, if they are weaker than their rivals, they are likely to withdraw from the conflict. In the new study, the same logic applies to modern men when they reason about political conflicts about the redistribution of resources in society, the researchers said. “Today, physical strength is highly unlikely to affect how big a share of society’s resources you are able to acquire. However, our data shows that physical strength nonetheless continues to affect men’s political attitudes towards redistribution,” Laustsen added. For the study, the team measured and asked about the physical strength of 6,349 participants who belonged to different nationalities. The results showed that men who trained their upper-bodies for two months became more positive towards inequality. However, no link between physical strength and political attitudes concerning women was observed.
When you look at the cross-section of a tree, you see a series of concentric rings. One ring is the layer of wood produced in one growing season. According to Icogitate, each ring marks where the dark later growing wood of the previous year meets the paler-colored early wood of the next year’s growth. One annual ring is one dark ring and one light ring together.Counting the rings can tell us how long the tree has lived; more rings means an older tree. Tree rings can tell us other things, too. For example, they can potentially help us place events from the distant past more precisely in time.Drill for dendrochronology sampling and growth ring counting. Photo by Hannes GrobeCC BY-SA 2.5According to a story in The Guardian, archaeologists believe they have found a way to put more accurate dates on events that happened in prehistory.Rare and intense solar storms have left their mark on fields and trees around the world for the last 5,000 years.The growth rings of a tree at Bristol Zoo, England. Each ring represents one year; the outside rings, near the bark, are the youngest.Michael Dee, of Oxford University, thinks that evidence of this sort of storm can help us put precise years to some of history’s uncertain dates, such as when the Great Pyramid at Giza was constructed or when the Vikings first came to the Americas.Closer view of a stump with age estimate left by a large Pin Oak infected by Bacterial Leaf Scorch in Ewing. Photo by Famartin CC BY-SA 3.0Dendrochronology is the science of dating events by using the characteristic patterns of annual growth in trees or timber.For decades scientists have been using tree rings and carbon-dating to build a timeline of events that confirm historical accounts – sometimes even events that predate written history.Annual rings, larch; Larix decidua.Carbon-dating works by comparing the ratio between two isotopes of carbon – carbon-14 and carbon-12 – in old, organic material.Carbon-14 in the upper atmosphere is pretty constant, due to the planet being constantly bombarded with cosmic rays.Diagram of secondary growth in a tree showing idealized vertical and horizontal sections. A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches, and roots to form a growth ring. Photo by Chiswick Chap CC By SA 4.0Since isotopes decay at a known and predictable rate, the proportion of C14 to C12 in, for example, old wood, tells us about how old it is.Carbon dating isn’t very precise, however, in that the results can be plus or minus 50 years. It’s also expensive.Geomagnetic solar storms have the potential to damage and shut down power grids and communications networks worldwideSevere solar storms, though, can cause trees to have much higher levels of carbon-14 during the years that the storms occur – up to 20 times higher than in a normal year.These storms would affect every existing tree and plant on the planet when they occur.That can help determine what year historical events happened. By comparing these high carbon-14 tree rings to building materials from ancient structures, the structures can be more accurately dated and the correlating historical events better pinpointed in time.Close up view of a tree trunk showing the annual growth rings.According to the Daily Mail, analysis of trees in California’s bristlecone pine forest showed evidence of these types of elevated carbon-14 levels occurring in 5480 B.C.An international team led by Japanese scientists from Nagoya University measured carbon-14 levels in trees in that forest, some of which have lived for thousands of years and hold in their rings records of solar events that have affected Earth through a great deal of its history.Heart-shaped tree rings.Scientists said that the elevated carbon levels they found showed a more abrupt change than any they had seen, except for similar changes occurring in 774 A.D and 994 A.D., and their use of annual tree-ring data, rather than using data by the decade, is what allowed them to place it in time.They attribute the data to being the result of a change in magnetic activity in the sun, combined with strong solar bursts, or a very weak sun.Old tree rings telling time and age of trunk.Michael Dee and his co-author, Benjamin Pope, in an article for the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society are proposing a new field of study, astrochronology, that will use this solar evidence as a means of “tying down” so-called “floating chronologies,” such as those of ancient Egypt, the collapse of the Mayan civilization and the Bronze Age, to fixed dates on the universal calendar.Read another story from us: Rare, Gorgeous Photos of Ancient Trees Around the GlobeNone of this had been known before, because the study of tree rings is generally done by decadal sets of rings, rather than annual, and so the carbon-14 spikes hadn’t been noticed. Now, though, we have an opportunity to be able to better fit together the pieces of our early history, and learn more about how it all goes together.
For history lovers, a stay in a historic castle is a dream come true, although for many of us, this dream is likely to remain a fantasy. However, an increasing number of historical castles are now opening their doors to travelers, and a night in one of them could be more affordable than you think. According to HomeAway, castles are emerging as a dominant trend in the tourism industry. Demand for historical holiday locations has shot up by 55 percent in recent years, perhaps in response to the increased popularity of medieval-themed TV shows such as Game of Thrones.This increase in demand has also provided a much-needed opportunity for owners of these historic sites, many of whom are struggling to keep up with the high maintenance costs of running such large, old buildings. In particular, Europe is littered with beautiful, ancient castles, and many of them are now welcoming guests for a holiday with a historical twist. Tulloch Castle, ScotlandTulloch Castle. Photo by Peter Moore CC BY-SA 2.0Scotland is blessed with an abundance of dramatic castles and fortresses, but Tulloch Castle in Dingwall, Ross-Shire is perhaps the most atmospheric. This beautiful castle was constructed in the 12th century and is the ancestral home of Clan Davidson.Tulloch Castle. Photo by David Maclennan CC BY-SA 2.0This important piece of Scottish heritage has been carefully restored, retaining original period features such as the wood-paneled dining hall.However, according to Visit Scotland, travelers to Tulloch Castle may find themselves with more company than they expected, as the castle is also home to a number of resident ghosts.Caisteal Gorach. Photo by Iain Macaulay CC BY-SA 2.0In particular, the ghost of former owner Elizabeth Davidson is said to haunt the castle as the Green Lady, appearing only to the most distressed or sorrowful guests. Cliveden House, EnglandCliveden, view looking north from the Ring in the Parterre showing Terrace Pavilion and Clock Tower to the left with Lower Terrace and Borghese Balustrade below. Photo by WyrdLight.com CC BY 3.0Cliveden House is one of England’s premier historic stately homes, and many rich and famous members of the British elite have stayed here over the centuries.In particular, the house is famous for the wild and lavish parties thrown by Nancy and Waldorf Astor in the early 20th century, hosting guests such as Winston Churchill, George Bernard Shaw and even Mahatma Gandhi.Cliveden HouseAccording to the National Trust, it was also the location of the notorious Profumo scandal that rocked the British establishment in the 1960s. More recently, Meghan Markel stayed here immediately prior to her marriage to Prince Harry.English country houseCliveden is an impressive property, located in the pleasant Berkshire countryside and set in 400 acres of stunning grounds along the banks of the River Thames. Today it has been completely renovated to include a sumptuous hotel and spa – the perfect combination of history and luxury.Lisheen Castle, IrelandLisheen Castle. Photo by HerryLawford CC BY 2.0Lisheen Castle, located in County Tipperary, is a compact 18th century house that may be rented out in its entirety. Burned down by the IRA in 1921, Lisheen Castle was left as a ruin for almost 80 years before it was restored by its current owners.Lisheen Castle. Photo by HerryLawford CC By 2.0Comprising nine bedrooms and bathrooms, and lovingly renovated with authentic 19th century furnishings and features, Lisheen Castle offers a truly atmospheric slice of Irish history.Furthermore, it is within close distance of the iconic Cliffs of Mohar and the medieval town of Kilkenny.Inverlochy Castle, ScotlandInverlochy Castle Hotel. Photo by Johnny Durnan CC BY-SA 2.0In 1873, Queen Victoria wrote in her diary following a week staying at Inverlochy Castle, stating that she “never saw a lovelier or more romantic spot.”Queen Victoria initiated the British royal family’s obsession with all things Scottish, and after a trip here it’s easy to see why.Inverlochy Castle Hotel. Photo by Johnny Durnan CC BY-SA 2.0Inverlochy Castle is an imposing 19th century fortress set in rich, abundant grounds, covered in Scottish heather and thistle. Rooms here don’t come cheap, but it offers an epic setting steeped in royal and Scottish history.Hotel de la Cité, Carcassonne, FranceHôtel de la Cité de Carcassonne. Photo by Tournasol7 CC BY SA 3.0The medieval walled city of Carcassonne is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and one of France’s most impressive examples of medieval architecture.Visitors to this beautiful corner of France can even stay inside the medieval fortress that dominates the city, in the luxurious Hotel de la Cité.Carcassonne has a long and rich history, having survived siege, plague, and even a crusade directed at the Cathar religious sect that dominated the city in the 13th century.Read another story from us: Europe’s Greatest Castle was Built by a “Mad” King who Lived in a Dream WorldIn a far cry from its medieval predecessor, the castle now contains a Michelin-starred restaurant and opulent modern rooms, all within the medieval castle. Some of the rooms even occupy the iconic fortress towers, and look down over the medieval city.
This is the story of James Jesse Strang, the first and only King of Michigan. Well, alright, it wasn’t ALL of Michigan, and he wasn’t really king, but he thought so, and enough other people did so that for a time it did seem as if there was a little kingdom on an island in Lake Michigan. James Strang was born in New York in 1813, and his childhood dreams included becoming the next Julius Caesar or Napoleon Bonaparte. He was a good student with lots of promise and kept a highly profound personal diary as a youth, but like other would-be dictators, he drifted in early adulthood, moving throughout upstate New York.Finally, despite his father’s arguing that his son should be a farmer like he was, Strang chose to train as a lawyer. He was admitted to the Bar at age 23.James Strang daguerreotype, 1856In the 19th century, much like today, serving as a lawyer was a springboard to public service and/or political office, and Strang became a county postmaster and editor of a newspaper.AdChoices广告inRead invented by TeadsHe later founded the first daily newspaper in northern Michigan. He did not feel particularly religious and considered himself a “freethinker”, but became a Baptist minister in 1843. Strang left the Baptist church when he discovered the Mormon religion and met its leader, Joseph Smith, shortly thereafter. He and Smith got along well, and Strang was personally baptized by the Mormon Prophet.Joseph Smith III — Son of Joseph Smith. Leader of the “Reorganized” church 1860-1914When Smith was murdered in March 1844, Strang claimed to be the new Mormon leader, as did a number of others, most notably Brigham Young, who led the majority of Mormons to Utah. This left Strang with a small but growing number of followers and supporters, including Smith’s brother and mother.The power struggle continued for some three years with increasingly bitter internal debate until Young was recognized by most Mormons as the new leader of the faith. Young, Strang and others in the Church of Latter Day Saints felt that the church was called to claim territory in the west, at the time undeveloped country.Strangite church building in Voree, Wisconsin (2005). Photo by John Hamer CC BY-SA 3.0While Young and most of the Mormons headed to Utah, Strang, followed by the many who believed him to be the rightful leader, made his way to the island of Big Beaver, Michigan in 1848.Strang told them he was guided by God to found the so-called “Second Stake of Zion” there, and like Smith and Young, claimed to have been appointed by God’s angels as their leader. However, Mormon belief included a council of elders who were to be consulted on significant matters.Page three of Strang’s Letter of AppointmentMost people accepted the claim, but many of his followers left because of his dictatorial tendencies and brusque manner. Still others left because he initially disagreed with standing Mormon belief on polygamy, which he vehemently opposed. But in 1849, he reversed course and became a strong supporter of the practice, eventually marrying five women and fathering 14 children.Despite losing some followers, Strang and his fellows gained others and sent missionary groups not only throughout the northern U.S. but also to England (though that venture met with failure).By 1850, Strang felt strong enough in his position and that his colony was doing well enough for him to claim the title he seemed to have always wanted: king. He cited Joseph Smith’s writings and the fact that Smith had been secretly crowned “king” just before his murder.Related Video: “Hunger Stone” warnings appear on rocks made visible by droughtNothing about Strang’s “coronation” was modest, though one might expect a religious leader to be so. He seemed to take a cue from Napoleon and wore a bright red flannel robe topped with white fur. His crown (not gold, but tin) was polished to a shine and included a cluster of glass stars on the front. He also wore a Roman-type breastplate and a wooden scepter. It seemed his childhood dreams had come true.Big Beaver Island is 25 miles from the coast and that remote location allowed Strang to rule his kingdom without interference from the mainland. His 2,500 hard-working followers actually managed to make Big Beaver Island a going concern, replacing Mackinac Island as the main refueling stop for steamers and becoming a supplier of fish, lumber, and potatoes to the mainland.Beaver Island. Photo by www.terraprints.com CC BY 2.5This success and what many believed to be the peculiar nature of Strang’s religion and rule caused much hostility among Michiganders. Fanning the fire was the fact that the Mormons had pushed many of the locals out of prime fishing spots.The practice of polygamy was also antithetical to most Americans religious beliefs. This would cause problems not only for Strang’s sect but for the Mormons in Utah as well.Powerful local politicians put pressure on President Millard Fillmore to do something about Strang, and the U.S. District Attorney filed charges against Strang.Millard FillmoreThese charges included murder and treason. Strang was not only acquitted on the charges that many people knew were false, but the whole process gave him new popularity, and he was elected to the state legislature in 1853.While in the legislature, Strang actually made a good impression and a number of friends, but also made enemies due to his supporting bills which would have banned the sale of alcohol to Native Americans.Back on Big Beaver Island, however, his rule as “king” was becoming more and more authoritarian, and people began to resent it. He began to regulate personal aspects of people’s lives, including women’s dress.Iron Ore Bay, Beaver IslandHe called for women to HAVE to wear loose-fitting smocks over a pair of pantaloons. Most of the women went along with Strang’s decree, but a number were resentful, as were their husbands.So strong was Strang’s hold over much of the island’s population that he ordered two of the protesting husbands whipped. These men then sought revenge and on June 16, 1856, they lay in wait for Strang and shot him down. He died three weeks later.When Strang died, those mainlanders who opposed him and the Mormon faith formed an armed posse, landed on the island and forced the settlers to leave.Read another story from us: The Fabled Remote Island where Medieval Irish Monks Battled the Forces of EvilMany of them went to Utah to join the Mormons there, while others founded smaller settlements which recognized Strang’s place as king even in death.
16-seed UMBC pulled off the holy grail of NCAA Tournament upsets with a blowout win against 1-seed Virginia. The retrievers seemed nearly unstoppable in the dismantling of the ACC Champs, and because it was the first time most people had seen them play, it’s hard to imagine them as anything other than unbeatable.But, UMBC wasn’t a 16-seed for nothing and their 25-10 regular season featured some less magical moments, like when they got housed by the University of Albany, 83-39, in January. As incredible as the Retrievers were against UVA, they were equally awful against U of A, and at one point trailed 53-14 in the second half.These highlights are bizarre considering the incredible first impression they left, but they are human, after all. This one got ugly.